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## Active Quasiparticle Suppression in a Non-Equilibrium Superconductor

*Marco Marín-Suárez, Joonas T. Peltonen, Jukka P. Pekola*

Quasiparticle (qp) poisoning is a major issue that impairs the operation of various superconducting devices. Even though these devices are often operated at temperatures well below the critical point where the number density of excitations is expected to be exponentially suppressed, their bare operation and stray microwave radiation excite the non-equilibrium qp’s. Here we use voltage-biased superconducting junctions to demonstrate and quantify qp extraction in the turnstile operation of a superconductor–insulator–normal metal–insulator–superconductor single-electron transistor. In this operation regime, excitations are injected into the superconducting leads at a rate proportional to the driving frequency. We reach a reduction of density by an order of magnitude even for the highest injection rate of 2.4 × 108 qp’s per second when extraction is turned on.

*Nano Lett.*

**20**, 5065-5071 (2020)doi:

*10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01264*

arxiv:

*https://arxiv.org/abs/2002.12052*